The Great Hijra

started on Jun 21, 622 AD, and lasted till Jul 2, 622 AD. Leaving their homes behind Prophet Muhammad and his small band of Muslims migrated to a new city without anything to their names. No property. No money. No protectors but their most prized possession, faith. This is where everything about Islam and Muhammad changes. First of all, Muhammad wasn’t just a preacher or prophet anymore. He was, now, something of a political leader, a statesman. Not exactly a king but I’d say an Emir, which is like a duke. Secondly, at this point, the revelation of the Qur’an changed dramatically. Before, in his 13 years in Mecca, the revelation mostly talked about concepts of Islam; Oneness of God, Heaven Hell, and Stories of the past prophets but now, after The Great Hijra, the revelations were very different. They talked about legislation, warfare, everyday state issues, and their solutions. It really indicated the shift in Muhammad’s life. This is where he becomes different than most prophets, for, most prophets didn’t have a realm to govern. In June, 622 CE, Muhammad and his friend Abu Bakr arrived in the Yathrib. Yathrib was almost immediately renamed to Madinah an-Nabi meaning “The City of the Prophet”. Shortened to Medina. Muhammad’s immediate challenge was trying to integrate the migrants or the Muhajirun into Muslims of Medina, the Ansaar. There were also pagans there but they slowly converted to Islam and never became a problem for Muhammad. The biggest minority was the Jewish people. They mostly lived on the outskirts of the city in their own forts which also served as blacksmith workshops. they made weapons which were their financial backbone. Muhammad saw the Jews as “People of the Book”. Since they were also an Abrahamic faith, Muhammad considered them an ally. In fact, at this point, Muslims prayed while facing Jerusalem the same as the Jews. during his first year in Medina Muhammad drafted the constitution of Medina. The legislation document outlined laws that served to turn the people and tribes of Medina to unite under law. First of all, it declared Medina a harem just like Abraham declared Mecca a harem this meant that no one who agrees on the Constitution will conduct any bloodshed in Medina especially Muslims for whom to this day this condition stands. Secondly, all the tribes and communities living in Medina will face no interference in their religion from another community, this was especially for Jewish minority, The most important Clause was that if one community of Medina is attacked by an outsider all the communities will band together to defend them and no community will help an outsider or even support them against a community of Medina. lastly, it declared that all internal disputes in Medina will be resolved by Mohammed which was why he was invited to Medina in the first place this document brought the groups together to make them strong meanwhile the number of Muslims in Medina was rapidly growing he settled the Muhajiroun with the Ansaar by pledging them to support the Mahajironn financially if possible but the Ansaar were happy to do but not everyone in Medina holds a farm so economically they weren’t very well. During the first year, Muhammad started construction of Al-Masjid Al-Nabawi, the mosque of the Prophet. It was to serve as a place of worship a community center and as headquarters to the Muslim community, all of the major decisions from this point on will be taken in that mosque. Meanwhile, in Mecca the Meccan seized the properties of Muslims who had left Medina this understandably made Muslims very angry and they began to see raiding as justifiable action. Medina while not a trading hub itself was on a major trade route between Mecca and Jerusalem. The Muslims, economically weak started raiding. About one and a half years of the hijra in 623 CE when a Meccan caravan was coming back from Palestine with a lot of riches and weapons, the Meccans thought that Muslims might raid and take those riches and weapons. so, they informed Meccans people of this and Meccans tired of financial problems caused by the taxes, dispatched an army of a thousand men meanwhile Muhammad planning to only raid a caravan brought some 300 or as mostly said in tradition 313 men. The caravan changed route but Muhammad’s raiding party met the Meccan army and the war commenced, The Battle of Badr. In that battle, Muhammad’s army was seriously outnumbered but despite that thanks to their faith in Allah and their commitment to even sacrifice for their cause that Muslims won the battle. They fought back an army thrice their size and Meccans were humiliated by this and would come to the Vengeance in a year or two. This battle was a display of a couple of things first of all Muslims weren’t as weak as they look. Secondly, the Ansaar fought side by side the Muhajiron even though technically the didn’t have any commitment to Prophet Muhammad. This unity depicted a community that was truly United in sickness and Health. Soon after this battle, Muhammad expelled a Jewish tribe called Banu Qaynuqa. Muslims these days say that a Jewish jeweler had molested a Muslim woman which escalated to violence. Some sources say that this is not true at all instead Muslims just wanted to get rid of the Jewish tribe but Traditionally it was the tribe from which a woman proposed Abdullah, Father of Prophet Muhammad and even tried to have illegitimate relation with him because she wanted Prophet Muhammad to be from a Jewish background and because of the other threat that it later will pose Muhammad(PBUH) Get rid of them. After seizure for two weeks, Banu Qanuqa surrendered and was expelled in 624BC. About a year after Batlle of Badr with similar circumstances, the Muslim army of about 700 men met a Meccan army of about 3,000 Meccans which had one goal to win back the prestige they have lost at Badr. The Battle of all had commenced early on Muslims were very good methods even began to retreat Muhammad had put some archers to defend a passageway that ledto the rear of the Muslim army as the meccans began to retreat these archers thought they had won the battle the passage way opened and Khalid Ibn Walid ook some of the Macan cavalry to attack Muslims from the rearremember that me part of the drug money he became one of the strongest weaponsin a Muslim Arsenal a few years later Muslims suffered heavy losses butfortunately for the Muslims the Magdalene party was already breaking dueto low morale and they couldn’t do the kind of damage that this would haveallowed them the Muslims retreated Muslims lost this battle but they didenough damage to the Meccans that they couldn’t move to destroy the Muslims andcapture Medina Muhammad himself was injured and his uncle Hamza even optimumLib was killed in the battle around a year after this battle in 625 CeeMuhammad received a divine revelation that a Jewish tribe but now there wastrying to kill him so he invaded the tribe and expelled them from sin isexpiring Jews was sort of becoming a celebration ritual for Muslims two yearsafter this in 627 seen five years after the hit off the Jewish tribe an organicax and banana that whom Muhammad had expelled allied themselves with theMeccans to take Medina a confederacy of multiple Arab tribes also joined an armyof 10,000 members raised against Medina Muhammad called on his council to decidewhat to do Medina didn’t have any walls to protect it from invasion so it wasgoing to be difficult to defend it multiple suggestions were passed but theone that was most acceptable muscleman the persians suggestion to dig a trencharound midi on three sides Medina had rocky mountains and trees which weredifficult for an army to march through especially ten thousand men so theMuslims just had to secure them all inside and they were ready for a siegeall able men over 14 contributed to digging the trench in just six daysMuslims harvested their crops early to ensure the Meccans wouldn’t be able toreplenish their supplies Medina was struck by a famine but through all thisthe Muslims held on because their survival is at stake the meccans andtheir allies arrived outside Medina a trench was something they had never seenbefore they were baffled and decided to waitthe Muslims out some troops did try to cross a trench but they were at a hugedisadvantage because French was ready the siege went on forabout a month while the siege was going on some Jewish tribes from theConfederacy crossed the woods around Medina to meet with Banu Qurayza but asI was pretty much the only Jewish tribe left in Medina abiding by theconstitution of Medina at the head even supported Muslim defenses by supplyingthem with weapons and some digging tools however seen 10,000 men on the horizonthey were scared Jewish leaders from the Confederacy persuaded them to attackMuhammad from the Ansaar Muhammad found out about this an Arab leader namednamed emer Massoud had secretly can order to Islam and Muhammad asked him sodescent in the Confederacy Naima Massoud first went to the bonapartism he toldthem that the Confederacy will not hesitate in battle and should the siegefail and Muhammad will show them no mercy the Banu Qurayza agreed with himand backed off offering the Confederacy’s their support if theyhanded over Confederate leaders as hostagesNaima Massoud then went to Abu Sufian even HAARP whose last name means son ofWarren I really liked that I was a fan was the leader of the magazine killed inthe Confederacy Lane told him that the Banu Qurayza had backed off and theywouldn’t support them named Eden Massoud intrigued was successful the Confederacywas starting to break eventually they abandoned siege this was a hugevictory for Muslims and keeping to their tradition of expelling Jews aftervictory Muslim did more than expelled Banu Qurayza Muhammad due to BanuQurayza is betrayal during the siege invaded theirstrongholds their siege went onto for about 25 days before they surrenderednow this next part is very controversial Muhammad handed over the judgment ofBanu Qurayza to saad IBN want a muslim convert who was a former ally of thetribe and is said to have possessed a lot of knowledge of Jewish Scripture heruled that all the men of Banu Qurayza be killed women and children be enslavedand their property divided among Muslims Muhammad agreed to it and even said thata Last Judgment for Banu Qurayza is the same as that of Saudthe judgment was a massacre killing hundreds of men some might say how coulda prophet stand behind this but here’s the thing about Muhammad in the way hegoverned he always resolved issues passed judgment by the involved partiesfaith if two Jews came to him to resolve a conflict he would look at theirscripture not the Quran this judgment the Banu Qurayza one was nothistorian Martin links in his book Mohammed is life based on the earliestsources points out that this verdict came from the tirana me 2011 toDeuteronomy 2013 which reads if they accept your offer of peace and opentheir gates all of the people there will become forced to laborers to serve butif they refuse to make peace with you and wage war against you lay siege totheir city when the Lord your God has delivered it to your hands you muststrike down every male with the sword now I don’t really know much aboutJewish and Christian scripture so you should certainly google it and do someresearch yourself if you’re into it anyways by this warning sound 600 to 900men were beheaded and all the women and children were enslaved afterwards therewas peace for a while let’s move on in 628 seee Muhammad and his companionswanted to make a pilgrimage to Mecca which as you might remember was a commonthing with Mecca being home to Kaaba to be holy shrine that he Brandon Belt soMohammed along with 1,400 of his fellow Muslims headed to Mecca even though theyhad no weapons but some swords Megan feared that this might be an invasion sothey sent emissaries to talk to Muhammad eventually this led to a tree called thetreaty of hudaibiya it had a couple of points first of all Muslims would returnthis year and come back the following year for pilgrimage and the mackinswould evacuate the city and move to the mountains for the duration secondlythere was a truce for 10 years no mekin would hurt a Muslim and no Muslim wouldhurt a Mecca this would also apply to the allies of both parties this point isgonna be important later finally if a Megan runs away to Mohammed II she shallbe headed back to Koresh but if a Muslim runs away from Mohammed to Mecca thesame will not be done this treaty indicated a couple of thingsfirst of all Mohammed was no longer a rebel or fugitive basically Makin’s wereadmitting that Muhammad and his people were a state like Mecca itself fullyindependent second that Muhammad faith Islam was indeed an Arabit wasn’t rejecting the Kaaba it wasn’t rejecting Mecca sacred status also nowthat macarons were admitting that Medina was indeed an independent statethey couldn’t hurt Muslims still living in Mecca so all those Muslims couldopenly practice their faith in Mecca the Quran called it a great victory actuallythe next year 629 seee muslims suffered a terrible defeat after his peace withMegan’s Muhammad reach out to rulers around the world he wrote letters topeople like the Byzantine Emperor Emperor Heraclius and the the PersianShah host ro the second one of these letters was headed for the governor ofBasra all the way the Muhammad’s emissary was killed by an official thiswas an Ansaar of the highest degree basically it was a declaration of war tokill an emissary so that year 629 see Muhammad sent a small army of about3,000 men under the command of his adopted son said the expedition was topunish the local tribes but when the army arrived in lapa they found aByzantine army waiting for them the numbers were around 10,000 or sonaturally as you might expect outnumbered and outgunned Muslimssuffered a lot of damage Zedd himself died during the battleafter two more commanders the command landed in the hands of how did notbelieve the same man whom Muslims had suffered terribly from during the Battleof fault he had now converted to Islam Khalid ib’n Alwaleed managed to retreatwithout sustaining more damage it was a terrible defeat for Muslims and fromMuhammad himself as he lost his son said at his cousin’s offer even Abu Talib inthe same battle but the next year 630 C was a year of victory so there was aclause in the shooting of an idea but the meccans that there will be truce for10 years and it would apply to their allies as well however that yearBernbach allies of the Koresh attacked bonacasaallies of the muslims when the news reached muhammad he was furious Qurayshsent their emissaries to Muhammad immediately urging him to stick to thetree but Muhammad believed that really had already been violated so he gatheredan army to march on Mecca Mahmoud called on hisallies and raised an impressive army of 10,000 his plans weren’t even clear tohis commanders he was going to use the element of surprise when they reachedMecca he organized his men to make them appear to be more than they actuallywore I was a found him in Horeb the leader of the Quraysh tried his best todefuse the situation without fighting but Muhammad had had enough he dividedhis men into four columns for each entry point into Mecca one of these columnsunder the command of Khalid ib’n Alwaleedentered through the northeast entry point there was some skirmish from thehardcore anti Muslims but mostly there was no bloodshed and Muhammad tried hisbest to avoid fighting because Mecca was after all a harem and spilling bloodthere was forbidden it is to this day as well Muhammad had finally taken to Meccaeight years after he left his home helpless he came back as a conquer mostAmericans converted to Islam Muhammad ordered that no one who lays his weaponmust be heard except those who try to disrupt the peace this was Muhammad’striumph I speak to you in the same words as Youssef spoke to his brothers thisday there is no reproof against you go your way for your free moment forgaveeverything all the torture all the killing everything even forgave themurder of his own people his own family he’s a monk Ohafter this Muhammad said on to conquer the entirety of Arabia but there wasanother threat Muhammad heard of an invasion by the Byzantines who havemoved to intercept he raised an army from all over Arabia some 30,000 men herdad to his first battle the Battle of Badr just seven years earlier when hehad only 300 men under his command Muhammad and his army marched towardsthe book in the north of Arabia he stayed there for some 20 days madeallies with local chiefs but as it turns out the news of byzantine invasionwasn’t true however it did serve a purpose it showedthe world that Muslims warned free they weren’t weak and they were willingin 632 CE a few months after his pilgrimage to Mecca a Hajj and hisfarewell address Muhammad fell ill he suffered for several days with head painand weakness on Monday 8th of June 632 CE II in Medina at the age of 62 or 63in the house of his wife Aisha with his head resting on Aisha’s lap Muhammadclosed his eyes for the final time with his death Islam was complete Medinacontrolled all of Arabia becoming a power to threaten even the super powersof the era after his death ensued a crisis of succession. see you next time. Read Also about ”Does God Exist?.”

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