when Benjamin Franklin exited the Constitutional Convention he was asked by a woman, ”sir what have you given us?” his immediate response was among different types of government, a republic, ma’am if you can keep it. yet most Americans today have been persuaded that their nation’s governmental system is a democracy and not a republic.
The difference between these two is essential in understanding Americanism and the American system before we discuss political systems however it’s helpful to address the different types of government along with their political systems and moreover address the confusion that has been spread about the political system and the distinct types and forms of government.
Types of government
For thousands of years people have been ruled by governments. These bodies of power make rules that organize society and are meant to protect it from danger. Many different forms of government have taken shape from structures where power is concentrated in the hands of one person to those where power is shared among many. These different systems characterized by how many people are in charge, how they are chosen and how they rule, have massive consequences for the relationship between governments and their people. So let’s talk about them starting from the place where power is concentrated in the hand of one to where the power is shared among all.
1. Monarchy or Authoritarianism: Rule by one
This system of government is based on one person’s ruling, a one individual mostly, king, queen or a powerful individual is dominating the whole system with rigid and tight grip over all the power structures over a country. Instances of these sort of governing style is of the Saudi Arabia, North Korea, England, Libya.
2. Oligarchy: Rule by few
It is a government run by a few, a group of elites, wealthy, influential, and powerful people. These form of government is literally not existing in modern world in appearance but it used to be in existence during the apartheid regime in Africa where the royals of Britain exercised their power on African people.
3. Democracy: Rule by majority
One system that is rife in the world today is democracy where the people choose who will govern them. One of its earliest forms dating back to ancient Greece was direct democracy meaning one person could vote on a matter like whether to go to war. Votes were decided by a simple majority. However today, people use their representative to vote on such matters. If a representative could gather a large majority, he could do anything.
4. Republic: Rule by law
Another system that is most familiar is the republic system where law gets to decide everything and government is limited by the law. Therefore everything is executed based on the law and not on majority’s rule or decision.
5. Anarchy: Rule by no one
In a state of anarchy, there exists no government. It is a rule by no one; everyone shares the power equally.
Types of Political and socio-economic systems
Capitalism: Free Market
Capitalism is a socio-economic system where there is private ownership of capital goods, and competition in free market. The system has also political implication. Companies and corporation who manipulate capital good and have capital goods in their hand can make use of it and exploit it the way they want to control masses also. Like big corporations who have oils can have big influence on countries that does not have oil. In a capitalistic system companies gets to control the capital good from which other goods are made and they control the production, distribution, prices of everything, therefore they can control and manipulate lots of people both as a result of the fortunes the accumulate and the influence the gain over controlling the means of production, distribution and their prices.
Communism or socialism: Government owned enterprises and businesses
Communism or socialism is a system based on government owning the capital goods and means of production, distribution and their prices, simply the businesses and corporations. The government gets to exercise the policies of social equality and welfare to ensure that everybody in the society could get the basic needs of life, such as healthcare, education, and food security. In this system the government control the companies, and businesses and shares their profits equally among their workers.
Many have been led to believe that the political spectrum places groups such as communists on the far left fascists or dictators on the far right and political moderates in the middle. However a more accurate political spectrum will show government having zero power on the far right to having 100% power on the far left at the extreme right there is no government.
The extreme left features total government under such labels as communism, socialism, Nazism, fascism, dictators, kings, any form of total government those who claim that Nazis and fascists are right-wing never defined their terms this amounts to spreading confusion.
Toward the middle of the political spectrum can be found the type of government limited to its proper role of protecting the rights of the people that is where the Constitution of the United States is those who advocate such form of government are really constitutional moderates.
Flaws with different types of government
So let’s analyze the basic types of government and their flaws. They are monarchy or dictatorship ruled by one. Oligarchy ruled by a few. Democracy ruled by a majority. Republic rule by law and Anarchy which is ruled by no one. In discussing these five will see that they can be narrowed down to even fewer types and forms of government.
- Looking first at monarchy or dictatorship, this form of government doesn’t really exist in the practical sense it’s always a group that puts one of its members up front. A king has his Council of nobles or Earl’s and every dictator has his bureaucrats or commissary, the men behind the scenes. This isn’t ruled by one even though one person may be the visible leader it’s ruled by a group so let’s eliminate monarchy-dictatorship because it never truly exists.
2. Oligarchy which is ruled by a group is the most common form of government among the other types of government in all history and it is the most common type of government. Today most of the nations of the world are ruled by a powerful few and therefore oligarchy remains at the other end.
3. Anarchy which means without government. Some people have looked over history and found that many of its worst crimes were committed by governments. So they decided that having no government might be a good idea than any types of government but this is a mistake because as the ancient Greeks stated, ”without law they can be no freedom”. Our founding fathers agreed and held that some amount of government is necessary force in any civilized, orderly Society. In a state of anarchy however everyone has to guard life, liberty and property and the lives of family members. Everyone must be armed and movement is severely restricted because once property has to be protected at all times. Civilized people have always hired someone to do the guarding, a sheriff, a police force or some branch of government. Once law enforcement was in place the people were freer, they could leave their property, work in the fields and so on. It means ensuring the proper amount of government makes everyone freer. There are some who advocate anarchy however not because they want no government. It is because they don’t like what they have. They use Anarchy as a tool for revolutionary change. The condition of anarchy is very much like a vacuum where something rushes in to fill it. These calculating anarchists work to break down the existing government with riot and killing, looting and terrorism. Tragically the people living in such chaos often go to those best able to put an end to it and beg them to take over and restore order and who is best able to put an end to the chaos, the very people who started it. The anarchists who created the problem then create a government run by them. In oligarchy where they have total power. This is exactly what happened in Russia that led to Lenin taking total power and in Germany where Hitler’s brown shirt created the chaos that brought him to power but anarchy is an unstable form of government. It is a quick transition from something that exists to something desired by the power-hungry. It is a temporary condition and because it isn’t permanent, we eliminate it as well.
4. The word democracy comes from two Greek words demos meaning people and Kratein meaning to rule. Democracy therefore means the rule of the people, majority rule. This of course sounds good but suppose the majority decides to takeaway one’s home or business or children obviously there has to be a limit. The flaw in democracy is that the majority isn’t restrained. If more than half the people can be persuaded to want something in a democracy, they rule.
4. What about Republic well that comes from the Latin res meaning thing and pública meaning public it means the public thing, ‘’the law’’. A true republic is one where the government is limited by law leaving the people alone. America’s founders had clean slate to write on they could have set up an oligarchy in fact there were some who wanted George Washington to be their king but the founding fathers knew history and they chose to give us the rule of law in a republic, not the rule of a majority in a democracy.
Why the choose republic amongst the different types of government?
Let’s demonstrate the difference in the setting of the Old West, consider a lynch mob in a democracy, thirty five horseback riders chase one lone gunman. They catch him and they vote thirty-five to one to hang him and they did. – Democracy has triumphed and there’s one less gunman to contend with. Now consider the same scenario in a republic, the thirty five horseback riders catch the gunman and vote thirty-five to one to hang but the sheriff arrives and he says you can’t kill him, we have the law to be set in place and also he’s got his right to affair trial. So they take the gunman back to town. A jury of his peers is selected and they hear the evidence and the defense. They decide if he shall hang. Does the jury even decide by majority rule?. No. it has to be unanimous or he goes free. So the rights of the gunman aren’t subject to majority rule but to the law. This is the essence of a republic. Many Americans would be surprised to learn that the word democracy does not appear in the Declaration of Independence or the US Constitution nor does it appear in any of the Constitutions of the 50 states. The founders did everything they could to keep us from having a democracy. James Madison rightly known as the father of the Constitution wrote in essay number 10 of the Federalist Papers democracies have ever been spectacles of turbulence and contention have ever been found incompatible with personal security or the rights of property and have in general. But in short in their lives as they have been violent in their deaths. Alexander Hamilton agreed and hesitated we are a republican government, real Liberty is never found in despotism or in the extremes of democracy. Samuel Adams a signer of the Declaration of Independence stated democracy never lasts long. it soon wastes exhausts and murders itself the founders had good reason to look upon democracy with contempt because they knew that the democracies in the early Greek city-states produced some of the wildest successes of government imaginable in every case, They ended up with mob rule than anarchy and finally tyranny underran oligarchy.
During that period in Greece there was a man named Solon who urged creation of a fixed body of law not subject to majority whims but where the Greeks never adopted Solon’s wise counsel the Romans did. Based on what they knew of Solon’s laws they created the Twelve Tables of the Roman law and in effect built republic that limited government power and left the people alone. Since government was limited the people were free to produce with the understanding that they could keep the fruits of their labor. In time Rome became wealthy and the envy of the world. In the midst of plenty however the Roman people forgot what freedom entailed they forgot that the essence of freedom is the proper limitation of government when government power grows people freedom recedes. Once the Romans dropped their guard. Power-seeking politicians began to exceed the powers granted theming the Roman Constitution. Some learned that they could elect politicians who would use government power to take property from some and give it to others. Agriculture subsidies were introduced followed by housing and welfare programs inevitably taxes rose and controls over the private sector were imposed.
Soon a number of Rome’s producers could no longer make ends meet and they went on the dole. Productivity declined, shortages developed and mobs began roaming the streets demanding bread and circuses from the government. Many were induced to trade freedom for security eventually the whole system came crashing down they went from are public to a democracy and ended up with an oligarchy under a progression of the Caesars. Thus democracy itself is not a stable form of government instead it is the gradual transition from limited government to the unlimited rule of an oligarchy. Knowing this we as Americans are ultimately left with only two choices we can keep our republic as Franklin put it or we will inevitably end up with an oligarchy a tyranny of the elite.
In the end, republic is the only form of government among all the other types of government that will persist and live without murdering itself.
Why all the political and socio-economics systems will fail eventually?
- Capitalism: This political and socio economic system is a good incentive to appreciate people to open new business and enterprises and to compete in the open market for amassing bigger amounts of net worth for themselves. It is good to have opportunities to thrive forwards and gather lots of money and profits for oneself. Companies and big corporations does the same without limitation and restriction, like they employ a large amount of employee to work for them. The employees works for months and years, spending endless hours thriving for the company but the will not get rich. Do you know why?
This particular system is designed for the rich. It is a system designated for the rich to get richer and wealthier through all means possible. Therefore the rich manipulates and misuses all the opportunity for themselves to get rich. One way is they steal our liberty, freedom of choice and lastly our most precious commodity time. Second way is the the exploit the workforce. They all do it by making us work for endless hour with minimal pay and no holidays. The even manipulate our choices and our minds to get some particular dress, a particular watch, a beautiful house, a certain shoe, or a beautiful body for their own profit. They enslave the whole generation, mostly weak and poor to work for them in their companies and corporation and in the end the fruits of their labor is taken by the big heads of the corporation and only a small chunks of the profit is given to them. That is the reason that the poor is getting poorer and the rich is getting richer. Since the poor cannot open a big enterprises or business, they therefore becomes the slaves of the big corporations and companies and in the contrary, since the rich is able to take big leaps in the market, therefore it can and will exploit the poor and the working class to the extent the want.
2. Communism or socialism:
This particular system is flawed because of its restrictions. It is a system where government has a tight control over the system, restraining the people running the company and also the company itself. The government has all the wealth of the company in hand and shares it among the workers equally. Since all the gains and profits of the company is taken by the government and shared among the workers, therefore there is not much encouragement for the company to strive and thrive forward. As a result there is not much competition in the market and no willing to progress in the market because everything is taken over by the government and no one can get rich. Therefore when there are no incentive like which exist in the capitalistic system, consequently there will not be any progress, improvements and innovations from companies and corporations either.
Read also about The New World Order( who actually lead the world?)
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